Die ID beweging fasineer my vir die eenvoudige rede dat dit 'n baie eenvoudige en volkome wetenskaplike agenda het. As ek dit moet opsom dan is William Dembski se definisie vir my die akkuraatste:
Dembski: "Intelligent design is the science that studies signs of intelligence."
Enige definisie of argument wat hier aangeheg word sal veroorsaak dat onnodige strydvrae ontstaan. Die feit van die saak is dat hard gebakte naturaliste en materialiste het al reeds 'n groot probleem met hierdie definisie op sy eie. Net jammer dat ek nog nie gehoor het presies wat hulle werklike probleem is behalwe dat hulle botweg en sonder rede weier om te aanvaar dat die heelal en lewe self 'n "sign of intelligence" kan wees. Maar hierdie ongegronde kritiek ter syde... ID soek na tekens van intelligensie in al die waarneembare verskynsels in ons heelal, niks meer nie.
Voorbeelde van hierdie wetenskap sluit in:
- Forensic science
- Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
- All scientists has to account for intelligent artefacts in their investigations.
Terwyl ons nou weet WAT "Intelligent design" is kan ons kyk na hoe die moderne beweging ontstaan het. My notas volg hier en beskryf die geskiedenis aan die hand van 4 kern figure in die beweging. (Ek gaan met opset nie in die detail van die organisasie van die beweging op die oomblik, omdat hierdie net 'n bekendstelling is.)
1. Michael Denton wrote:
Written in 1985
- Denton is a self-described agnostic
- He found that:
- Darwinian micro evolution is quite plausible
- The macro evolutionary thesis suffers a chronic weakness of empirical support.
- In summary Denton found that:
"One might have expected that a theory of such cardinal importance, a theory that literally changed the world, would have been something more than metaphysics, something more than a myth. Ultimately the Darwinian theory of evolution is no more nor less than the great cosmogenic myth of the twentieth century.... In final analysis we still know very little about how new forms of life arise. The "mystery of mysteries" - the origin of new beings on earth - is still largely as enigmatic as when Darwin set sail on the Beagle."
2. Phillip E. Johnson wrote:
Johnson is a Tenured Law Professor at the UC Berkeley
- He is not a literalist regarding the Bible
- In 1987 he read both "Evolution: A theory in crisis" and " The Blind Watchmaker" by Richard Dawkins. Dawkins's rhetorical brilliance impressed him BUT Denton persuaded him that macro evolution by natural selection was more mythical than empirical
- He spent his sabbatical to research the topic. 1987-1988
- He wrote a paper on Darwinism. In September 1988 he defended the paper at a Berkeley faculty seminar
- During the nineties he spoke widely at universities and expanded his criticisms in five more books
- Reason in the Balance (1994)
- Testing Darwinism (1997)
- Objections Sustained (1998)
- The Wedge of Truth (2000)
- The Right Questions (2002)
- Johnson says that key philosophical assumptions, especially "metaphysical naturalism" buttress evolutionary biology and protect it from questioning
- Naturalism - The belief that the universe is a "closed system" of material causes and effects that cannot be influenced by any "outside entity" like God.
Behe is a Biology professor at Lehigh University
- He put design into the spotlight with "Darwin's Black Box" in 1996
- This lodged the "Design inference" as a plausible scientific notion in American consciousness
- His criticisms was based on his own field of investigation - BIOCHEMISTRY
- He used the term Irreducible Complexity to explain the issues with Darwinian evolution
- New York Times summarized it:
- "...many of the biochemical machines inside the cell, such as the tiny outboard motor called the flagellum, exhibited an eerie kind of complexity that defied Darwinian explanations."
- The flagellum is the little outboard motor that propell some types of bacteria:
- Ever since "Darwin's Black Box" Behe has been considered a Darwinian heretic.
- His criticisms made sure that it did not fit the creationist genre:
- He attacked the credibility of neo-Darwinism on strictly scientific grounds
- Behe is also not a fundamentalist (literalist), being Roman Catholic.
4. William Dembski wrote:
Dembski holds a Doctorate in mathematics and in the philosophy of science
- In 1996 he proposed a procedure for detecting design called the "explanatory filter".
- It is a step-by-step matrix of statistical and logical criteria whereby Dembski claimed an investigator can reliable detect which phenomena or objects in the universe are designed and which are not.
- His "explanatory filter" was researched and published in "Mere Creation" 1998 and the highly technical "The design inference" 1998
- The Design Inference was peer reviewed as part of the Cambridge University Press's monograph series, "Cambridge Studies in Probability, Induction and Decision Theory.
- The detail of this peer reviewed publication is discussed in a later publication "The design revolution" to silence his critics.